This Day in History (July 16)

Staff Writer

Events

622 – The beginning of the Islamic calendar.
1054 – Three Roman legates break relations between Western and Eastern Christian Churches through the act of placing an invalidly-issued Papal bull of Excommunication on the altar of Hagia Sophia during Saturday afternoon divine liturgy. Historians frequently describe the event as the start of the East–West Schism.
1212 – Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa: After Pope Innocent III calls European knights to a crusade, forces of Kings Alfonso VIII of Castile, Sancho VII of Navarre, Peter II of Aragon and Afonso II of Portugal defeat those of the Berber Muslim leader Almohad, thus marking a significant turning point in the Reconquista and in the medieval history of Spain.
1377 – Richard II of England is crowned.
1661 – The first banknotes in Europe are issued by the Swedish bank Stockholms Banco.
1683 – Manchu Qing dynasty naval forces under traitorous commander Shi Lang defeat the Kingdom of Tungning in the Battle of Penghu near the Pescadores Islands.
1769 – Father Junípero Serra founds California's first mission, Mission San Diego de Alcalá. Over the following decades, it evolves into the city of San Diego, California.
1779 – American Revolutionary War: Light infantry of the Continental Army seize a fortified British Army position in a midnight bayonet attack at the Battle of Stony Point.
1790 – The District of Columbia is established as the capital of the United States after signature of the Residence Act.
1809 – The city of La Paz, in what is today Bolivia, declares its independence from the Spanish Crown during the La Paz revolution and forms the Junta Tuitiva, the first independent government in Spanish America, led by Pedro Domingo Murillo.
1849 – Antonio María Claret y Clará founds the Congregation of the Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, popularly known as the Claretians in Vic, in the province of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
1861 – American Civil War: At the order of President Abraham Lincoln, Union troops begin a 25-mile march into Virginia for what will become the First Battle of Bull Run, the first major land battle of the war.
1862 – American Civil War: David Farragut is promoted to rear admiral, becoming the first officer in United States Navy to hold an admiral rank.
1909 – Persian Constitutional Revolution: Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar is forced out as Shah of Persia and is replaced by his son Ahmad Shah Qajar.
1910 – John Robertson Duigan makes the first flight of the Duigan pusher biplane, the first aircraft built in Australia.
1915 – Henry James becomes a British citizen to highlight his commitment to Britain during the first World War.
1915 – First Order of the Arrow ceremony takes place and the Order of the Arrow is founded to honor American Boy Scouts who best exemplify the Scout Oath and Law.
1927 – Augusto César Sandino leads a raid on U.S. Marines and Nicaraguan Guardia Nacional that had been sent to apprehend him in the village of Ocotal, but is repulsed by one of the first dive-bombing attacks in history.
1931 – Emperor Haile Selassie signs the first constitution of Ethiopia.
1935 – The world's first parking meter is installed in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.
1941 – Joe DiMaggio hits safely for the 56th consecutive game, a streak that still stands as a MLB record.
1942 – Holocaust: Vel' d'Hiv Roundup (Rafle du Vel' d'Hiv): The government of Vichy France orders the mass arrest of 13,152 Jews who are held at the Winter Velodrome in Paris before deportation to Auschwitz.
1945 – World War II: The heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis leaves San Francisco with parts for the atomic bomb "Little Boy" bound for Tinian Island.
1945 – Manhattan Project: The Atomic Age begins when the United States successfully detonates a plutonium-based test nuclear weapon near Alamogordo, New Mexico.
1948 – Following token resistance, the city of Nazareth, revered by Christians as the hometown of Jesus, capitulates to Israeli troops during Operation Dekel in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.
1948 – The storming of the cockpit of the Miss Macao passenger seaplane, operated by a subsidiary of the Cathay Pacific Airways, marks the first aircraft hijacking of a commercial plane.
1950 – Chaplain–Medic massacre: American POWs are massacred by North Korean Army.
1951 – King Leopold III of Belgium abdicates in favor of his son, Baudouin I of Belgium.
1956 – Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus closes its last "Big Tent" show in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; due to changing economics all subsequent circus shows will be held in arenas.
1965 – The Mont Blanc Tunnel linking France and Italy opens.
1965 – South Vietnamese Colonel Phạm Ngọc Thảo, a formerly undetected communist spy and double agent, is hunted down and killed by unknown individuals after being sentenced to death in absentia for a February 1965 coup attempt against Nguyễn Khánh.
1969 – Apollo program: Apollo 11, the first mission to land astronauts on the Moon, is launched from the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Kennedy, Florida.
1979 – Iraqi President Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr resigns and is replaced by Saddam Hussein.
1983 – Sikorsky S-61 disaster: A helicopter crashes off the Isles of Scilly, causing 20 fatalities.
1990 – The Luzon earthquake strikes the Philippines with an intensity of 7.7, affecting Benguet, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, La Union, Aurora, Bataan, Zambales and Tarlac.
1990 – The Parliament of the Ukrainian SSR declares state sovereignty over the territory of the Ukrainian SSR.
1999 – John F. Kennedy Jr., piloting a Piper Saratoga aircraft, dies when his plane crashes into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Martha's Vineyard. His wife and sister-in-law are also killed.
2004 – Millennium Park, considered Chicago's first and most ambitious early 21st-century architectural project, is opened to the public by Mayor Richard M. Daley.
2007 – An earthquake of magnitude 6.8 and 6.6 aftershock occurs off the Niigata coast of Japan killing eight people, injuring at least 800 and damaging a nuclear power plant.
2013 – As many as 27 children die and 25 others are hospitalized after eating lunch served at their school in eastern India.
2015 – Four U.S. Marines and one gunman die in a shooting spree targeting military installations in Chattanooga, Tennessee.

Births

1194 – Clare of Assisi, Italian nun and saint (d. 1253)
1486 – Andrea del Sarto, Italian painter (d. 1530)
1517 – Frances Grey, Duchess of Suffolk, English duchess (d. 1559)
1529 – Petrus Peckius the Elder, Dutch jurist, writer on international maritime law (d. 1589)
1611 – Cecilia Renata of Austria (d. 1644)
1661 – Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, Canadian captain, explorer, and politician (d. 1706)
1714 – Marc René, marquis de Montalembert, French engineer and author (d. 1800)
1722 – Joseph Wilton, English sculptor and academic (d. 1803)
1723 – Joshua Reynolds, English painter and academic (d. 1792)
1731 – Samuel Huntington, American jurist and politician, 18th Governor of Connecticut (d. 1796)
1749 – Cyrus Griffin, American lawyer, judge, and politician, 16th President of the Continental Congress (d. 1810)
1796 – Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, French painter and etcher (d. 1875)
1821 – Mary Baker Eddy, American religious leader and author, founded Christian Science (d. 1910)
1841 – Nikolai von Glehn, Estonian-German architect and activist (d. 1923)
1858 – Eugène Ysaÿe, Belgian violinist, composer, and conductor (d. 1931)
1862 – Ida B. Wells, American journalist and activist (d. 1931)
1870 – Lambert McKenna, Irish priest, lexicographer, and scholar (d. 1956)
1871 – John Maxwell, American golfer (d. 1906)
1872 – Roald Amundsen, Norwegian pilot and explorer (d. 1928)
1880 – Kathleen Norris, American journalist and author (d. 1966)
1883 – Charles Sheeler, American photographer and painter (d. 1965)
1884 – Anna Vyrubova, Russian author (d. 1964)
1887 – Shoeless Joe Jackson, American baseball player and manager (d. 1951)
1888 – Percy Kilbride, American actor (d. 1964)
1888 – Frits Zernike, Dutch physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1966)
1889 – Arthur Bowie Chrisman, American author (d. 1953)
1889 – Larry Semon, American actor, director, producer, and screenwriter (d. 1928)
1895 – Wilfrid Hamel, Canadian businessman and politician, 35th Mayor of Quebec City (d. 1968)
1896 – Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer, German biologist and eugenicist (d. 1969)
1896 – Trygve Lie, Norwegian trade union leader and politician, 1st Secretary-General of the United Nations (d. 1968)
1902 – Alexander Luria, Russian psychologist and physician (d. 1977)
1902 – Mary Philbin, American actress (d. 1993)
1903 – Fritz Bauer, German lawyer and judge (d. 1968)
1903 – Carmen Lombardo, Canadian singer-songwriter (d. 1971)
1903 – Irmgard Flügge-Lotz, German mathematician and engineer (d. 1974)
1904 – Goffredo Petrassi, Italian composer and conductor (d. 2003)
1906 – Vincent Sherman, American actor, director, and screenwriter (d. 2006)
1907 – Frances Horwich, American educator and television host (d. 2001)
1907 – Orville Redenbacher, American farmer and businessman, founded Orville Redenbacher's (d. 1995)
1907 – Barbara Stanwyck, American actress (d. 1990)
1910 – Stan McCabe, Australian cricketer (d. 1968)
1910 – Gordon Prange, American historian, author, and academic (d. 1980)
1911 – Ginger Rogers, American actress, singer, and dancer (d. 1995)
1911 – Sonny Tufts, American actor (d. 1970)
1912 – Milt Bocek, American baseball player (d. 2007)
1915 – Barnard Hughes, American actor (d. 2006)
1918 – Denis Edward Arnold, English soldier (d. 2015)
1919 – Hermine Braunsteiner, Austrian SS officer (d. 1999)
1919 – Choi Kyu-hah, South Korean politician, 4th President of South Korea (d. 2006)
1920 – Anatole Broyard, American critic and editor (d. 1990)
1923 – Chris Argyris, American psychologist, theorist, and academic (d. 2013)
1924 – James L. Greenfield, American journalist and politician
1924 – Bess Myerson, American model, actress, game show panelist, and politician, Miss America 1945 (d. 2014)
1925 – Frank Jobe, American sergeant and surgeon (d. 2014)
1925 – Rosita Quintana, Argentine actress
1926 – Ivica Horvat, Croatian footballer and manager (d. 2012)
1926 – Irwin Rose, American biologist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2015)
1927 – Pierre F. Côté, Canadian lawyer and civil servant (d. 2013)
1927 – Shirley Hughes, English author and illustrator
1928 – Anita Brookner, English novelist and art historian (d. 2016)
1928 – Robert Sheckley, American author and screenwriter (d. 2005)
1928 – Jim Rathmann, American racing driver (d. 2011)
1928 – Dave Treen, American lawyer and politician, 51st Governor of Louisiana (d. 2009)
1928 – Andrzej Zawada, Polish mountaineer and author (d. 2000)
1929 – Charles Ray Hatcher, American serial killer (d. 1984)
1929 – Sheri S. Tepper, American author and poet
1930 – Guy Béart, Egyptian-French singer-songwriter (d. 2015)
1930 – Michael Bilirakis, American lawyer and politician
1932 – John Chilton, English trumpet player and composer
1932 – Max McGee, American football player and sportscaster (d. 2007)
1932 – Dick Thornburgh, American lawyer and politician, 76th United States Attorney General
1934 – Donald M. Payne, American educator and politician (d. 2012)
1935 – Carl Epting Mundy, Jr., American general (d. 2014)
1936 – Yasuo Fukuda, Japanese politician, 91st Prime Minister of Japan
1936 – Buddy Merrill, American guitarist
1936 – Jerry Norman, American sinologist and linguist (d. 2012)
1936 – Venkataraman Subramanya, Indian-Australian cricketer
1937 – Richard Bryan, American lawyer and politician, 25th Governor of Nevada
1937 – John Daly, English director, producer, and screenwriter (d. 2008)
1938 – Cynthia Enloe, American author and academic
1938 – Tony Jackson, English singer and bass player (d. 2003)
1939 – William Bell, American singer-songwriter
1939 – Denise LaSalle, American singer-songwriter and producer
1939 – Shringar Nagaraj, Indian actor and producer (d. 2013)
1939 – Corin Redgrave, English actor and activist (d. 2010)
1939 – Mariele Ventre, Italian singer and conductor (d. 1995)
1941 – Desmond Dekker, Jamaican singer-songwriter (d. 2006)
1941 – Dag Solstad, Norwegian author and playwright
1941 – Hans Wiegel, Dutch journalist and politician, Deputy Prime Minister of the Netherlands
1941 – Sir George Young, 6th Baronet, English banker and politician, Secretary of State for Transport
1942 – Margaret Court, Australian tennis player and minister
1942 – Frank Field, English politician
1943 – Reinaldo Arenas, Cuban-American author, poet, and playwright (d. 1990)
1943 – Vernon Bogdanor, English political scientist and academic
1943 – Jimmy Johnson, American football player and coach
1944 – Angharad Rees, English-Welsh actress and jewellery designer (d. 2012)
1946 – Louise Fréchette, Canadian civil servant and diplomat, Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations
1946 – Barbara Lee, American politician
1946 – Ron Yary, American football player
1947 – Don Burke, Australian television host and producer
1947 – Alexis Herman, American businesswoman and politician, 23rd United States Secretary of Labor
1947 – Assata Shakur, American-Cuban criminal and activist
1948 – Rubén Blades, Panamanian singer-songwriter, guitarist, and actor
1948 – Lars Lagerbäck, Swedish footballer and manager
1948 – Kevin McKenzie, South African cricketer
1948 – Pinchas Zukerman, Israeli violinist and conductor
1949 – Alan Fitzgerald, American guitarist and keyboardist
1950 – Pierre Paradis, Canadian lawyer and politician
1950 – Dennis Priestley, English darts player
1950 – Frances Spalding, English historian and academic
1950 – Tom Terrell, American journalist and photographer (d. 2007)
1951 – Jean-Luc Mongrain, Canadian journalist
1952 – Stewart Copeland, American drummer and songwriter
1952 – Richard Egielski, American author and illustrator
1952 – Marc Esposito, French director and screenwriter
1952 – Ken McEwan, South African cricketer
1952 – Robert David Steele, American spy and politician
1953 – Douglas J. Feith, American lawyer and politician, Under Secretary of Defense for Policy
1954 – Jeanette Mott Oxford, American politician
1955 – Susan Wheeler, American poet and academic
1956 – Tony Kushner, American playwright and screenwriter
1957 – Faye Grant, American actress
1957 – Alexandra Marinina, Ukrainian-Russian colonel and author
1958 – Michael Flatley, American-Irish dancer and choreographer
1958 – Mike Rogers, American politician
1959 – Gary Anderson, South African-American football player
1959 – James MacMillan, Scottish composer and conductor
1959 – Zoran Jolevski, Macedonian economist, politician, and diplomat, Macedonian Ambassador to the United States
1959 – Jürgen Ligi, Estonian economist and politician, 25th Estonian Minister of Defence
1960 – Terry Pendleton, American baseball player and coach
1962 – Grigory Leps, Russian singer-songwriter
1963 – Phoebe Cates, American actress
1963 – Srečko Katanec, Slovenian footballer and coach
1963 – Mikael Pernfors, Swedish tennis player
1964 – Phil Hellmuth, American poker player
1964 – Miguel Indurain, Spanish cyclist
1965 – Michel Desjoyeaux, French sailor
1965 – Claude Lemieux, Canadian ice hockey player
1965 – Sherri Stoner, American actress, producer, and screenwriter
1966 – Jyrki Lumme, Finnish ice hockey player
1966 – Johnny Vaughan, English journalist and critic
1967 – Will Ferrell, American actor, comedian, and producer
1968 – Dhanraj Pillay, Indian field hockey player and manager
1968 – Barry Sanders, American football player
1968 – Larry Sanger, American philosopher and businessman, co-founded Wikipedia and Citizendium
1968 – Robert Sherman, American songwriter and businessman
1969 – Jules De Martino, English singer-songwriter and bass player
1969 – Kathryn Harby-Williams, Australian netball player and sportscaster
1970 – Raimonds Miglinieks, Latvian basketball player and coach
1970 – Apichatpong Weerasethakul, Thai director, producer, and screenwriter
1971 – Corey Feldman, American actor
1971 – Ed Kowalczyk, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Live)
1972 – Ben Cahoon, American-Canadian football player and coach
1972 – François Drolet, Canadian speed skater
1973 – Shaun Pollock, South African cricketer
1973 – Graham Robertson, American director and producer
1973 – Tim Ryan, American politician
1974 – Jeremy Enigk, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
1974 – Maret Maripuu, Estonian politician, Estonian Minister of Social Affairs
1974 – Ryan McCombs, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
1974 – Wendell Sailor, Australian rugby player
1975 – Bas Leinders, Belgian race car driver
1976 – Tomasz Kuchar, Polish race car driver
1976 – Carlos Humberto Paredes, Paraguayan footballer
1976 – Anna Smashnova, Belarusian-Israeli tennis player
1977 – Bryan Budd, Northern Ireland-born English soldier, Victoria Cross recipient (d. 2006)
1979 – Chris Mihm, American basketball player
1979 – Douglas Murray, Scottish journalist and author
1979 – Mai Nakamura, Japanese swimmer
1979 – Kim Rhode, American sport shooter
1979 – Nathan Rogers, Canadian singer-songwriter and guitarist
1979 – Konstantin Skrylnikov, Russian footballer
1980 – Adam Scott, Australian golfer
1981 – Giuseppe Di Masi, Italian footballer
1981 – Zach Randolph, American basketball player
1981 – Vicente Rodríguez, Spanish footballer
1982 – André Greipel, German cyclist
1982 – Carli Lloyd, American soccer player
1982 – Michael Umaña, Costa Rican footballer
1983 – Duncan Keith, Canadian ice hockey player
1984 – Hayanari Shimoda, Japanese race car driver
1984 – Attila Szabó, Hungarian decathlete
1985 – Mārtiņš Kravčenko, Latvian basketball player
1985 – Denis Tahirović, Croatian footballer
1986 – Dustin Boyd, Canadian ice hockey player
1986 – Misako Uno, Japanese actress, singer, and fashion designer
1987 – Mousa Dembélé, Belgian footballer
1987 – AnnaLynne McCord, American actress and producer
1988 – Sergio Busquets, Spanish footballer
1989 – Gareth Bale, Welsh footballer
1989 – Carlito Olivero, American singer-songwriter and actor
1990 – Johann Zarco, French motorcycle racer
1991 – Andros Townsend, English footballer

Deaths

784 – Fulrad, Frankish diplomat and saint (b. 710)
866 – Irmgard, Frankish abbess
1212 – William de Brus, 3rd Lord of Annandale
1216 – Pope Innocent III (b. 1160)
1324 – Emperor Go-Uda of Japan (b. 1267)
1342 – Charles I of Hungary (b. 1288)
1509 – Joao da Nova, Portuguese explorer (b. 1460)
1546 – Anne Askew, English author and poet (b. 1520)
1557 – Anne of Cleves (b. 1515)
1576 – Isabella de' Medici, Italian noble (d. 1542)
1647 – Masaniello, Italian rebel (b. 1622)
1664 – Andreas Gryphius, German poet and playwright (b. 1616)
1686 – John Pearson, English bishop and scholar (b. 1612)
1691 – François-Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois, French politician, French Secretary of State for War (b. 1641)
1729 – Johann David Heinichen, German composer and theorist (b. 1683)
1747 – Giuseppe Crespi, Italian painter (b. 1665)
1770 – Francis Cotes, English painter and academic (b. 1726)
1796 – George Howard, English field marshal and politician (b. 1718)
1831 – Louis Alexandre Andrault de Langeron, French-Russian general (b. 1763)
1868 – Dmitry Pisarev, Russian author and critic (b. 1840)
1879 – Edward Deas Thomson, Scottish-Australian politician, 3rd Chief Secretary of New South Wales (b. 1800)
1886 – Ned Buntline, American journalist and author (b. 1823)
1896 – Edmond de Goncourt, French critic and publisher, founded Académie Goncourt (b. 1822)
1915 – Ellen G. White, American theologian and author (b. 1827)
1917 – Philipp Scharwenka, German composer and educator (b. 1847)
1939 – Bartholomeus Roodenburch, Dutch swimmer (b. 1866)
1949 – Vyacheslav Ivanov, Russian poet and playwright (b. 1866)
1953 – Hilaire Belloc, French-born British writer and historian (b. 1870)
1954 – Herms Niel, German soldier, trombonist, and composer (b. 1888)
1960 – Albert Kesselring, German field marshal (b. 1881)
1960 – John P. Marquand, American author (b. 1893)
1964 – Rauf Orbay, Turkish colonel and politician, Prime Ministers of Turkey (b. 1881)
1965 – Boris Artzybasheff, Ukrainian-American illustrator (b.1899)
1969 – James Scott Douglas, English-born Scottish racing driver and 6th Baronet Douglas (b. 1930)
1981 – Harry Chapin, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (b. 1942)
1982 – Charles Robberts Swart, South African lawyer and politician, 1st State President of South Africa (b. 1894)
1985 – Heinrich Böll, German novelist and short story writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1917)
1985 – Wayne King, American saxophonist, songwriter, and bandleader (b. 1901)
1989 – Herbert von Karajan, Austrian conductor and manager (b. 1908)
1990 – Robert Blackburn, Irish educator (b. 1927)
1991 – Meindert DeJong, Dutch-American soldier and author (b. 1906)
1991 – Robert Motherwell, American painter and academic (b. 1915)
1991 – Frank Rizzo, American police officer and politician, 93rd Mayor of Philadelphia (b. 1920)
1992 – Buck Buchanan, American football player and coach (b. 1940)
1994 – Julian Schwinger, American physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1918)
1995 – May Sarton, American playwright and novelist (b. 1912)
1995 – Stephen Spender, English author and poet (b. 1909)
1996 – Adolf von Thadden, German lieutenant and politician (b. 1921)
1998 – John Henrik Clarke, American historian and scholar (b. 1915)
1999 – John F. Kennedy Jr., American lawyer and publisher (b. 1960)
1999 – Alan Macnaughton, Canadian lawyer and politician, Speaker of the Canadian House of Commons (b. 1903)
2001 – Morris, Belgian cartoonist (b. 1923)
2002 – John Cocke, American computer scientist and engineer (b. 1925)
2003 – Celia Cruz, Cuban-American singer and actress (b. 1925)
2003 – Carol Shields, American-Canadian novelist and short story writer (b. 1935)
2004 – George Busbee, American lawyer and politician, 77th Governor of Georgia (b. 1927)
2004 – Charles Sweeney, American general and pilot (b. 1919)
2005 – Pietro Consagra, Italian sculptor (b. 1920)
2005 – Camillo Felgen, Luxembourgian singer-songwriter and radio host (b. 1920)
2006 – Winthrop Paul Rockefeller, American businessman and politician, 13th Lieutenant Governor of Arkansas (b. 1948)
2007 – Caterina Bueno, Italian singer and historian (b. 1943)
2008 – Jo Stafford, American singer (b. 1917)
2011 – Forrest Blue, American football player (b. 1944)
2012 – William Asher, American director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1921)
2012 – Stephen Covey, American businessman and author (b. 1932)
2012 – Gilbert Esau, American businessman and politician (b. 1919)
2012 – Ed Lincoln, Brazilian bassist, pianist, and composer (b. 1932)
2012 – Masaharu Matsushita, Japanese businessman (b. 1913)
2012 – Kitty Wells, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (b. 1919)
2013 – Alex Colville, Canadian painter and academic (b. 1920)
2013 – Marv Rotblatt, American baseball player (1927)
2014 – Karl Albrecht, German businessman, co-founded Aldi (b. 1920)
2014 – Mary Ellen Otremba, American educator and politician (b. 1950)
2014 – Johnny Winter, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (b. 1944)
2014 – Heinz Zemanek, Austrian computer scientist and academic (b. 1920)
2015 – Denis Avey, English soldier, engineer, and author (b. 1919)
2015 – Evelyn Ebsworth, English chemist and academic (b. 1933)
2015 – Alcides Ghiggia, Uruguayan footballer and manager (b. 1926)
2015 – Jack Goody, English anthropologist, author, and academic (b. 1919)

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