This Day in History (July 30)

Staff Writer

Events

762 – Baghdad is founded by caliph Al-Mansur.
1419 – First Defenestration of Prague: A crowd of radical Hussites kill seven members of the Prague city council.
1502 – Christopher Columbus lands at Guanaja in the Bay Islands off the coast of Honduras during his fourth voyage.
1608 – At Ticonderoga (now Crown Point, New York), Samuel de Champlain shoots and kills two Iroquois chiefs. This was to set the tone for French-Iroquois relations for the next one hundred years.
1619 – In Jamestown, Virginia, the first representative assembly in the Americas, the House of Burgesses, convenes for the first time.
1626 – An earthquake in Naples, Italy, kills about 10,000 people.
1635 – Eighty Years' War: The Siege of Schenkenschans begins; Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, begins the recapture of the strategically important fortress from the Spanish Army.
1656 – Swedish forces under the command of King Charles X Gustav defeat the forces of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth at the Battle of Warsaw.
1676 – Nathaniel Bacon issues the "Declaration of the People of Virginia", beginning Bacon's Rebellion against the rule of Governor William Berkeley.
1729 – Founding of Baltimore, Maryland.
1733 – The first Masonic Grand Lodge in the future United States is constituted in Massachusetts.
1756 – In Saint Petersburg, Bartolomeo Rastrelli presents the newly built Catherine Palace to Empress Elizabeth and her courtiers.
1811 – Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, leader of the Mexican insurgency, is executed by the Spanish in Chihuahua City, Mexico.
1825 – Malden Island is discovered by captain George Byron, 7th Baron Byron.
1859 – First ascent of Grand Combin, one of the highest summits in the Alps.
1863 – American Indian Wars: Representatives of the United States and tribal leaders including Chief Pocatello (of the Shoshone) sign the Treaty of Box Elder.
1864 – American Civil War: Battle of the Crater: Union forces attempt to break Confederate lines at Petersburg, Virginia by exploding a large bomb under their trenches.
1865 – The steamboat Brother Jonathan sinks off the coast of Crescent City, California, killing 225 passengers, the deadliest shipwreck on the Pacific Coast of the U.S. at the time.
1866 – Armed Confederate veterans in New Orleans riot against a meeting of Radical Republicans, killing 48 people and injuring another 100.
1871 – The Staten Island Ferry Westfield's boiler explodes, killing over 85 people.
1912 – Japan's Emperor Meiji dies and is succeeded by his son Yoshihito, who is now known as the Emperor Taishō.
1930 – In Montevideo, Uruguay wins the first FIFA World Cup.
1932 – Premiere of Walt Disney's Flowers and Trees, the first cartoon short to use Technicolor and the first Academy Award winning cartoon short.
1945 – World War II: Japanese submarine I-58 sinks the USS Indianapolis, killing 883 seamen.
1956 – A joint resolution of the U.S. Congress is signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, authorizing In God we trust as the U.S. national motto.
1962 – The Trans-Canada Highway, the longest national highway in the world, is officially opened.
1965 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Social Security Act of 1965 into law, establishing Medicare and Medicaid.
1969 – Vietnam War: US President Richard Nixon makes an unscheduled visit to South Vietnam and meets with President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu and U.S. military commanders.
1971 – Apollo program: Apollo 15 Mission: David Scott and James Irwin on the Apollo Lunar Module Falcon land on the Moon with the first Lunar Rover.
1971 – An All Nippon Airways Boeing 727 and a Japanese Air Force F-86 collide over Morioka, Iwate, Japan killing 162.
1974 – Watergate scandal: U.S. President Richard Nixon releases subpoenaed White House recordings after being ordered to do so by the Supreme Court of the United States.
1974 – Six Canadian Army cadets are killed and fifty-four are injured in an accidental grenade blast at CFB Valcartier Cadet Camp.
1975 – Jimmy Hoffa disappears from the parking lot of the Machus Red Fox restaurant in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit, at about 2:30 p.m. He is never seen or heard from again.
1978 – The 730 (transport), Okinawa Prefecture changes its traffic on the right-hand side of the road to the left-hand side.
1980 – Vanuatu gains independence.
1980 – Israel's Knesset passes the Jerusalem Law
1981 – As many as 50,000 demonstrators, mostly women and children, took to the streets in Łódź to protest food ration shortages in Communist Poland.
1990 – George Steinbrenner is forced by Commissioner Fay Vincent to resign as principal partner of New York Yankees for hiring Howie Spira to "get dirt" on Dave Winfield.
2003 – In Mexico, the last 'old style' Volkswagen Beetle rolls off the assembly line.
2006 – The world's longest running music show Top of the Pops is broadcast for the last time on BBC Two. The show had aired for 42 years.
2012 – A train fire kills 32 passengers and injures 27 on the Tamil Nadu Express in Andhra Pradesh, India.
2012 – A power grid failure in Delhi leaves more than 300 million people without power in northern India.
2014 – One hundred and fifty people are trapped after a landslide in Maharashtra, India; 20 are killed.

Births

1470 – Hongzhi, emperor of the Ming dynasty (d. 1505)
1511 – Giorgio Vasari, Italian painter, historian, and architect (d. 1574)
1549 – Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (d. 1609)
1641 – Regnier de Graaf, Dutch physician and anatomist (d. 1673)
1751 – Maria Anna Mozart, Austrian pianist (d. 1829)
1763 – Samuel Rogers, English poet and art collector (d. 1855)
1809 – Charles Chiniquy, Canadian-American priest and theologian (d. 1899)
1818 – Emily Brontë, English novelist and poet (d. 1848)
1818 – Jan Heemskerk, Dutch lawyer and politician, 16th and 19th Prime Minister of the Netherlands (d. 1897)
1825 – Chaim Aronson, Lithuanian engineer and author (d. 1893)
1832 – George Lemuel Woods, American lawyer, judge, and politician, 3rd Governor of Oregon (d. 1890)
1855 – Georg Wilhelm von Siemens, German-Swiss businessman (d. 1919)
1857 – Thorstein Veblen, American economist and sociologist (d. 1929)
1859 – Henry Simpson Lunn, English minister and humanitarian, founded Lunn Poly (d. 1939)
1862 – Nikolai Yudenich, Russian general (d. 1933)
1863 – Henry Ford, American engineer and businessman, founded the Ford Motor Company (d. 1947)
1872 – Princess Clémentine of Belgium (d. 1955)
1881 – Smedley Butler, American general, Medal of Honor recipient (d. 1940)
1890 – Casey Stengel, American baseball player and manager (d. 1975)
1893 – Fatima Jinnah, Pakistani dentist and politician (d. 1967)
1898 – Henry Moore, English sculptor and illustrator (d. 1986)
1899 – Gerald Moore, English pianist (d. 1987)
1901 – Alfred Lépine, Canadian ice hockey player and coach (d. 1955)
1904 – Salvador Novo, Mexican poet and playwright (d. 1974)
1909 – C. Northcote Parkinson, English historian and author (d. 1993)
1910 – Edgar de Evia, Mexican-American photographer (d. 2003)
1913 – Lou Darvas, American soldier and cartoonist (d. 1987)
1914 – Michael Morris, 3rd Baron Killanin, Irish journalist and author, 6th President of the International Olympic Committee (d. 1999)
1916 – Dick Wilson, English-American actor (d. 2007)
1920 – Walter Schuck, German lieutenant and pilot (d. 2015)
1921 – Grant Johannesen, American pianist and educator (d. 2005)
1922 – Henry W. Bloch, American banker and businessman, co-founded H&R Block
1925 – Stan Stennett, Welsh actor and trumpet player (d. 2013)
1925 – Alexander Trocchi, Scottish author and poet (d. 1984)
1927 – Richard Johnson, English actor, producer, and screenwriter (d. 2015)
1927 – Pete Schoening, American mountaineer (d. 2004)
1928 – Joe Nuxhall, American baseball player and sportscaster (d. 2007)
1929 – Sid Krofft, Canadian-American puppeteer and producer
1931 – Dominique Lapierre, French historian and author
1934 – Bud Selig, American businessman
1936 – Buddy Guy, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
1936 – Infanta Pilar, Duchess of Badajoz
1938 – Hervé de Charette, French politician, French Minister of Foreign Affairs
1938 – Terry O'Neill, English photographer
1939 – Peter Bogdanovich, American actor, director, producer, and screenwriter
1939 – Eleanor Smeal, American activist, founded the Feminist Majority Foundation
1940 – Patricia Schroeder, American lawyer and politician
1940 – Clive Sinclair, English businessman, founded Sinclair Radionics and Sinclair Research
1941 – Paul Anka, Canadian singer-songwriter and actor
1942 – Pollyanna Pickering, English environmentalist and painter
1943 – Henri-François Gautrin, Canadian physicist and politician
1944 – Gerry Birrell, Scottish race car driver (d. 1973)
1944 – Peter Bottomley, English politician
1944 – Frances de la Tour, English actress
1945 – Patrick Modiano, French novelist and screenwriter, Nobel Prize laureate
1945 – David Sanborn, American saxophonist and composer
1946 – Neil Bonnett, American race car driver and sportscaster (d. 1994)
1946 – Jeffrey Hammond, English bass player
1947 – William Atherton, American actor and producer
1947 – Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, French virologist and biologist, Nobel Prize laureate
1947 – Jonathan Mann, American physician and author (d. 1998)
1947 – Arnold Schwarzenegger, Austrian-American bodybuilder, actor, and politician, 38th Governor of California
1948 – John Briscoe, South African-American epidemiologist, engineer, and academic (d. 2014)
1948 – Billy Paultz, American basketball player
1948 – Jean Reno, Moroccan-born French actor
1948 – Otis Taylor, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
1948 – Julia Tsenova, Bulgarian pianist and composer (d. 2010)
1949 – Duck Baker, American guitarist
1949 – Sonia Proudman, English lawyer and judge
1950 – Harriet Harman, English lawyer and politician, Solicitor General for England and Wales
1951 – Alan Kourie, South African cricketer
1951 – Gerry Judah, Indian-English painter and sculptor
1952 – Stephen Blackmore, English botanist and author
1954 – Ken Olin, American actor, director, and producer
1955 – Rat Scabies, English drummer and producer
1955 – Christopher Warren-Green, English violinist and conductor
1956 – Delta Burke, American actress
1956 – Réal Cloutier, Canadian ice hockey player
1956 – Anita Hill, American lawyer and academic
1956 – Soraida Martinez, American painter and educator
1957 – Antonio Adamo, Italian director and cinematographer
1957 – Bill Cartwright, American basketball player and coach
1957 – Clint Hurdle, American baseball player and manager
1957 – Nery Pumpido, Argentinian footballer, coach, and manager
1957 – Leon Wesley Walls, American singer, songwriter, and guitarist
1958 – Kate Bush, English singer-songwriter and producer
1958 – Liz Kershaw, English radio broadcaster
1958 – Neal McCoy, American singer-songwriter
1958 – Daley Thompson, English decathlete and trainer
1960 – Jennifer Barnes, American-English musicologist and academic
1960 – Richard Linklater, American director and screenwriter
1960 – Jeff Rudom, American basketball player (d. 2011)
1961 – Laurence Fishburne, American actor and producer
1962 – Alton Brown, American chef, author, and producer
1962 – Jay Feaster, American ice hockey player and manager
1962 – Yakub Memon, Indian accountant and terrorist (d. 2015)
1963 – Peter Bowler, English-Australian cricketer
1963 – Lisa Kudrow, American actress and producer
1963 – Chris Mullin, American basketball player and manager
1964 – Ron Block, American singer-songwriter and banjo player
1964 – Vivica A. Fox, American actress
1964 – Alek Keshishian, Lebanese-American director, producer, and screenwriter
1964 – Jürgen Klinsmann, German footballer and manager
1964 – Laine Randjärv, Estonian lawyer and politician, 6th Estonian Minister of Culture
1965 – Tim Munton, English cricketer
1966 – Kerry Fox, New Zealand actress and screenwriter
1966 – Craig Gannon, English guitarist and songwriter
1966 – Allan Langer, Australian rugby player and coach
1966 – Louise Wener, English author and singer-songwriter
1968 – Terry Crews, American football player and actor
1968 – Robert Korzeniowski, Polish race walker and coach
1968 – Sean Moore, Welsh drummer and songwriter
1969 – Simon Baker, Australian actor, director, and producer
1969 – Errol Stewart, South African cricketer and lawyer
1970 – Alun Cairns, Welsh businessman and politician
1970 – Dean Edwards, American comedian, actor, and singer
1970 – Christopher Nolan, English-American director, producer, and screenwriter
1971 – Elvis Crespo, American-Puerto Rican singer
1972 – Jim McIlvaine, American basketball player and sportscaster
1973 – Kenton Cool, English mountaineer
1973 – Ümit Davala, Turkish footballer and manager
1973 – Anastasios Katsabis, Greek footballer
1973 – Markus Näslund, Swedish ice hockey player and manager
1973 – Sonu Nigam, Indian playback singer and actor
1973 – Clementa C. Pinckney, American minister and politician (d. 2015)
1974 – Radostin Kishishev, Bulgarian footballer and manager
1974 – Jason Robinson, English rugby player and coach
1974 – Hilary Swank, American actress and producer
1975 – Graham Nicholls, English author and activist
1975 – Kate Starbird, American basketball player and computer scientist
1977 – Diana Bolocco, Chilean model and journalist; Miss Universe 1987
1977 – Misty May-Treanor, American volleyball player and coach
1977 – Jaime Pressly, American actress
1977 – Bootsy Thornton, American basketball player
1977 – Ian Watkins, Welsh singer-songwriter
1979 – Carlos Arroyo, Puerto Rican basketball player and singer
1979 – Chad Keegan, South African cricketer and coach
1979 – Graeme McDowell, Northern Irish golfer
1979 – Maya Nasser, Syrian journalist (d. 2012)
1980 – Justin Rose, South African-English golfer
1981 – Nicky Hayden, American motorcycle racer
1981 – Juan Smith, South African rugby player
1981 – Hope Solo, American soccer player
1981 – Indrek Turi, Estonian decathlete
1982 – Jehad Al-Hussain, Syrian footballer
1982 – Yvonne Strahovski, Australian actress
1982 – James Anderson, English cricketer
1983 – Seán Dillon, Irish footballer
1984 – Marko Asmer, Estonian race car driver
1984 – Gabrielle Christian, American actress and singer
1984 – Kevin Pittsnogle, American basketball player
1985 – Aml Ameen, English actor, director, producer, and screenwriter
1985 – Daniel Fredheim Holm, Norwegian footballer
1985 – Luca Lanotte, Italian ice dancer
1985 – Matthew Scott, Australian rugby player
1986 – Tiago Alencar, Brazilian footballer
1986 – William Zillman, Australian rugby player
1987 – Anton Fink, German footballer
1987 – Sam Saunders, American golfer
1989 – Aleix Espargaró, Spanish motorcycle racer
1989 – Wayne Parnell, South African cricketer
1990 – Eliot Sumner, Italian-English singer-songwriter
1990 – Chris Maxwell, Welsh footballer
1991 – Jiyul, South Korean singer
1991 – Diana Vickers, English singer-songwriter
1992 – Hannah Cockroft, English wheelchair racer
1993 – Katie Cecil, American singer and guitarist
1993 – Margarida Moura, Portuguese tennis player
1993 – Jacob Faria, American baseball player
1996 – Nina Stojanović, Serbian tennis player

Deaths

578 – Jacob Baradaeus, Greek bishop
579 – Pope Benedict I
734 – Tatwine, English archbishop (b. 670)
829 – Shi Xiancheng, general of the Tang Dynasty
1286 – Bar Hebraeus, Syrian scholar and historian (b. 1226)
1516 – Johann V of Nassau-Vianden-Dietz (b. 1455)
1540 – Thomas Abel, English priest and martyr (b. 1497)
1540 – Robert Barnes, English martyr and reformer (b. 1495)
1550 – Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton, English politician, Lord Chancellor of the United Kingdom (b. 1505)
1566 – Guillaume Rondelet, French doctor (b. 1507)
1608 – Rory O'Donnell, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell, last King of Tyrconnell (b. 1575)
1652 – Charles Amadeus, Duke of Nemours (b. 1624)
1680 – Thomas Butler, 6th Earl of Ossory, Irish admiral and politician, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (b. 1634)
1683 – Maria Theresa of Spain (b. 1638)
1691 – Daniel Georg Morhof, German scholar and academic (b. 1639)
1700 – Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, English royal (b. 1689)
1715 – Nahum Tate, Irish poet (b. 1652)
1718 – William Penn, English businessman and philosopher, founded the Province of Pennsylvania (b. 1644)
1771 – Thomas Gray, English poet (b. 1716)
1811 – Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, Mexican priest and soldier (b. 1753)
1875 – George Pickett, American general (b. 1825)
1889 – Charlie Absolom, England cricketer (b. 1846)
1898 – Otto von Bismarck, German lawyer and politician, 1st Chancellor of Germany (b. 1815)
1900 – Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (b. 1844)
1912 – Emperor Meiji of Japan (b. 1852)
1918 – Joyce Kilmer, American soldier, journalist, and poet (b. 1886)
1920 – Albert Gustaf Dahlman, Swedish executioner (b. 1848)
1930 – Joan Gamper, Swiss-Spanish footballer and businessman, founded FC Barcelona (b. 1877)
1938 – John Derbyshire, English swimmer and water polo player (b. 1878)
1941 – Hugo Celmiņš, Latvian politician, former Prime Minister of Latvia (b. 1877)
1947 – Joseph Cook, English-Australian miner and politician, 6th Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1860)
1965 – Jun'ichirō Tanizaki, Japanese author and playwright (b. 1886)
1970 – Walter Murdoch, Scottish-Australian academic (b. 1874)
1970 – George Szell, Hungarian-American conductor and composer (b. 1897)
1975 – James Blish, American author and critic (b. 1921)
1977 – Emory Holloway, American scholar, author, and educator (b. 1885)
1983 – Howard Dietz, American songwriter and publicist (b. 1896)
1983 – Lynn Fontanne, English actress (b. 1887)
1985 – Julia Robinson, American mathematician and theorist (b. 1919)
1989 – Lane Frost, American bull rider (b. 1963)
1992 – Brenda Marshall, Filipino-American actress and singer (b. 1915)
1992 – Joe Shuster, Canadian-American illustrator, co-created Superman (b. 1914)
1994 – Ryszard Riedel, Polish singer-songwriter (b. 1956)
1996 – Claudette Colbert, French-American actress (b. 1903)
1997 – Bảo Đại, Vietnamese emperor (b. 1913)
1998 – Buffalo Bob Smith, American television host (b. 1917)
2001 – Anton Schwarzkopf, German engineer (b. 1924)
2003 – Steve Hislop, Scottish motorcycle racer (b. 1962)
2003 – Sam Phillips, American record producer, founded Sun Records (b. 1923)
2005 – Ray Cunningham, American baseball player (b. 1905)
2005 – John Garang, Sudanese colonel and politician, 6th President of South Sudan (b. 1945)
2006 – Duygu Asena, Turkish journalist and author(b. 1946)
2006 – Al Balding, Canadian golfer (b. 1924)
2006 – Murray Bookchin, American philosopher and author (b. 1921)
2006 – Anthony Galla-Rini, American accordion player and composer (b. 1904)
2006 – Akbar Mohammadi, Iranian activist (b. 1972)
2007 – Michelangelo Antonioni, Italian director and screenwriter (b. 1912)
2007 – Teoctist Arăpașu, Romanian patriarch (b. 1915)
2007 – Ingmar Bergman, Swedish director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1918)
2007 – Bill Walsh, American football player and coach (b. 1931)
2008 – Anne Armstrong, American businesswoman and diplomat, United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom (b. 1927)
2009 – Mohammed Yusuf, Nigerian militant leader, founded Boko Haram (b. 1970)
2009 – Peter Zadek, German director and screenwriter (b. 1926)
2011 – Bob Peterson, American basketball player (b. 1932)
2012 – Maeve Binchy, Irish author, playwright, and journalist (b. 1940)
2012 – Bill Doss, American singer and guitarist (b. 1968)
2012 – Stig Ossian Ericson, Swedish actor, director, and screenwriter (b. 1923)
2012 – Les Green, English footballer and manager (b. 1941)
2012 – Jonathan Hardy, New Zealand-Australian actor and screenwriter (b. 1940)
2012 – Bill Kitchen, Canadian ice hockey player (b. 1960)
2012 – Mary Louise Rasmuson, American colonel (b. 1911)
2013 – Cecil Alexander, American architect, designed the State of Georgia Building (b. 1918)
2013 – Berthold Beitz, German businessman (b. 1913)
2013 – Robert Neelly Bellah, American sociologist and author (b. 1927)
2013 – Harry F. Byrd, Jr., American lieutenant, publisher, and politician (b. 1914)
2013 – Antoni Ramallets, Spanish footballer and manager (b. 1924)
2013 – Ossie Schectman, American basketball player (b. 1919)
2013 – Benjamin Walker, Indian-English author, poet, and playwright (b. 1913)
2014 – Robert Drew, American director and producer (b. 1924)
2014 – Harun Farocki, German director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1944)
2014 – Julio Grondona, Argentinian businessman (b. 1931)
2014 – Peter Hall, English geographer, author, and academic (b. 1932)
2014 – Dick Smith, American make-up artist (b. 1922)
2014 – Dick Wagner, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (b. 1942)
2015 – Lynn Anderson, American singer (b. 1947)
2015 – Endel Lippmaa, Estonian physicist (b. 1930)
2015 – Francis Paul Prucha, American historian and academic (b. 1921)
2015 – Alena Vrzáňová, Czech figure skater (b. 1931)
2016 – Gloria DeHaven, American actress, singer, and dancer (b. 1925)

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