This day in history (Nov. 1)

Staff Writer

1765 – The British Parliament enacts the Stamp Act on the Thirteen Colonies in order to help pay for British military operations in North America.
1790 – Edmund Burke publishes Reflections on the Revolution in France, in which he predicts that the French Revolution will end in a disaster.
1800 – John Adams becomes the first President of the United States to live in the Executive Mansion (later renamed the White House).
1805 – Napoleon Bonaparte invades Austria during the War of the Third Coalition.
1814 – Congress of Vienna opens to re-draw the European political map after the defeat of France in the Napoleonic Wars.
1848 – In Boston, Massachusetts, the first medical school for women, The Boston Female Medical School (which later merged with the Boston University School of Medicine), opens.
1859 – The current Cape Lookout, North Carolina, lighthouse is lit for the first time. Its first-order Fresnel lens can be seen for about 19 miles (31 km) in good conditions.
1861 – American Civil War: U.S. President Abraham Lincoln appoints George B. McClellan as the commander of the Union Army, replacing General Winfield Scott.
1870 – In the United States, the Weather Bureau (later renamed the National Weather Service) makes its first official meteorological forecast.
1876 – New Zealand's provincial government system is dissolved.
1884 – The Gaelic Athletic Association is set up in Hayes's Hotel in Thurles, County Tipperary.
1886 – Ananda College, a leading Buddhist school in Sri Lanka is established with 37 students.
1894 – Nicholas II becomes the new (and last) Tsar of Russia after his father, Alexander III, dies.
1894 – Thomas Edison films American sharpshooter Annie Oakley, which is instrumental in her hiring by Buffalo Bill for his Wild West Show.
1896 – A picture showing the bare breasts of a woman appears in National Geographic magazine for the first time.
1897 – The first Library of Congress building opens its doors to the public. The Library had been housed in the Congressional Reading Room in the U.S. Capitol.
1901 – Sigma Phi Epsilon, the largest national male collegiate fraternity, is established at Richmond College, in Richmond, Virginia.
1911 – The first dropping of a bomb from an aircraft in combat, during the Italo-Turkish War.
1914 – World War I: The first British Royal Navy defeat of the war with Germany, the Battle of Coronel, is fought off of the western coast of Chile, in the Pacific, with the loss of HMS Good Hope and HMS Monmouth.
1914 – World War I: The Australian Imperial Force (AIF) departed by ship in a single convoy from Albany, Western Australia bound for Egypt.
1915 – Parris Island is officially designated a United States Marine Corps Recruit Depot.
1916 – Pavel Milyukov delivers in the State Duma the famous "stupidity or treason" speech, precipitating the downfall of the Boris Stürmer government.
1918 – Malbone Street Wreck: The worst rapid transit accident in US history occurs under the intersection of Malbone Street and Flatbush Avenue, Brooklyn, New York City, with at least 102 deaths.
1918 – Western Ukraine gains its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
1918 – The short-lived Banat Republic is founded.
1920 – American fishing schooner Esperanto defeats the Canadian fishing schooner Delawana in the First International Fishing Schooner Championship Races in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
1922 – Abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate: The last sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Mehmed VI, abdicates.
1928 – The Law on the Adoption and Implementation of the Turkish Alphabet, replacing the version of the Arabic alphabet previously used with the Latin alphabet, comes into force in Turkey.
1937 – Stalinists execute Pastor Paul Hamberg and seven members of Azerbaijan's Lutheran community.
1938 – Seabiscuit defeats War Admiral in an upset victory during a match race deemed "the match of the century" in horse racing.
1939 – The first rabbit born after artificial insemination is exhibited to the world.
1941 – American photographer Ansel Adams takes a picture of a moonrise over the town of Hernandez, New Mexico that would become one of the most famous images in the history of photography.
1942 – World War II: Matanikau Offensive begins during the Guadalcanal Campaign and ends three days later with an American victory.
1943 – World War II: In the Battle of Empress Augusta Bay, United States Marines, the 3rd Marine Division, land on Bougainville in the Solomon Islands.
1943 – World War II: In support of the landings on Bougainville, U.S. aircraft carrier forces attack the huge Japanese base at Rabaul.
1944 – World War II: Units of the British Army land at Walcheren in the Netherlands.
1945 – The official North Korean newspaper, Rodong Sinmun, is first published under the name Chongro.
1945 – Australia joins the United Nations.
1946 – Karol Wojtyla, the future Pope John Paul II, is ordained to the priesthood by Kraków's archbishop, Adam Sapieha.
1948 – Off southern Manchuria, 6,000 people die as a Chinese merchant ship explodes and sinks.
1948 – Athenagoras I, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is enthroned.
1950 – Puerto Rican nationalists Griselio Torresola and Oscar Collazo attempt to assassinate US President Harry S. Truman at Blair House.
1950 – Pope Pius XII claims papal infallibility when he formally defines the dogma of the Assumption of Mary.
1951 – Operation Buster–Jangle: Six thousand five hundred American soldiers are exposed to 'Desert Rock' atomic explosions for training purposes in Nevada. Participation is not voluntary.
1952 – Operation Ivy: The United States successfully detonates the first large hydrogen bomb, codenamed "Mike" ["M" for megaton], in the Eniwetok atoll, located in the Marshall Islands in the central Pacific Ocean. The explosion had a yield of ten megatons.
1953 – Andhra Pradesh attains statehood, with Kurnool as its capital.
1954 – The Front de Libération Nationale fires the first shots of the Algerian War of Independence.
1955 – The bombing of United Airlines Flight 629 occurs near Longmont, Colorado, killing all 39 passengers and five crew members aboard the Douglas DC-6B airliner.
1956 – The Indian states Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, and Mysore State are formally created under the States Reorganisation Act.
1956 – In India, Kanyakumari district is joined to Tamil Nadu state from Kerala.
1956 – The Springhill mining disaster in Springhill, Nova Scotia kills 39 miners; 88 are rescued.
1957 – The Mackinac Bridge, the world's longest suspension bridge between anchorages at the time, opens to traffic connecting Michigan's upper and lower peninsulas.
1959 – Montreal Canadiens goaltender Jacques Plante wears a protective mask for the first time in an NHL game.
1959 – In Rwanda, Hutu politician Dominique Mbonyumutwa is beaten up by Tutsi forces, leading to a period of violence known as the wind of destruction.
1960 – While campaigning for President of the United States, John F. Kennedy announces his idea of the Peace Corps.
1961 – Fifty thousand women in 60 cities participate in the inaugural Women Strike for Peace (WSP) against nuclear proliferation.
1963 – The Arecibo Observatory in Arecibo, Puerto Rico, with the largest radio telescope ever constructed, officially opens.
1963 – The 1963 South Vietnamese coup begins
1968 – The Motion Picture Association of America's film rating system is officially introduced, originating with the ratings G, M, R, and X.
1970 – Club Cinq-Sept fire in Saint-Laurent-du-Pont, France kills 146 young people.
1973 – Watergate scandal: Leon Jaworski is appointed as the new Watergate Special Prosecutor.
1973 – The Indian state of Mysore is renamed as Karnataka to represent all the regions within Karunadu.
1979 – In Bolivia, Colonel Alberto Natusch executes a bloody coup d'état against the constitutional government of Dr. Wálter Guevara.
1981 – Antigua and Barbuda gains independence from the United Kingdom.
1982 – Honda becomes the first Asian automobile company to produce cars in the United States with the opening of its factory in Marysville, Ohio. The Honda Accord is the first car produced there.
1993 – The Maastricht Treaty takes effect, formally establishing the European Union.
2000 – Serbia and Montenegro joins the United Nations.
2012 – A fuel tank truck crashes and explodes in the Saudi Arabian capital Riyadh killing 26 people and injuring 135.

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