This Day in History: July 5

Staff Writer

1295 – Scotland and France form an alliance, the so-called "Auld Alliance", against England.
1687 – Isaac Newton publishes Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica.
1775 – The Second Continental Congress adopts the Olive Branch Petition.
1811 – Venezuela declares independence from Spain.
1915 – The Liberty Bell leaves Philadelphia by special train on its way to the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. This is the last trip outside Philadelphia that the custodians of the bell intend to permit.
1934 – "Bloody Thursday" – Police open fire on striking longshoremen in San Francisco.
1935 – The National Labor Relations Act, which governs labor relations in the United States, is signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
1937 – Spam, the luncheon meat, is introduced into the market by the Hormel Foods Corporation.
1946 – The bikini goes on sale after debuting during an outdoor fashion show at the Molitor Pool in Paris, France.
1948 – National Health Service Acts creates the national public health systems in the United Kingdom.
1950 – Zionism: The Knesset passes the Law of Return which grants all Jews the right to immigrate to Israel.
1954 – The BBC broadcasts its first television news bulletin.
1971 – Right to vote: The Twenty-sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution, lowering the voting age from 21 to 18 years, is formally certified by President Richard Nixon.
1975 – Arthur Ashe becomes the first black man to win the Wimbledon singles title.
1980 - Swedish tennis player Björn Borg won his fifth Wimbledon final and became the first male tennis player to win the championships five times in a row (1976-1980).
1989 – Iran–Contra affair: Oliver North is sentenced by U.S. District Judge Gerhard A. Gesell to a three-year suspended prison term, two years probation, $150,000 in fines and 1,200 hours community service. His convictions were later overturned.
1996 – Dolly the sheep becomes the first mammal cloned from an adult cell.
2012 – The Shard in London is inaugurated as the tallest building in Europe, with a height of 310 metres (1,020 ft).